看完不会写MVP架构我跪搓板

codeGoogler / 文 发表于2018-05-03 09:20 次阅读

为了月薪1.8万,我们要不断地学习和总结,今天给大家带来常见的android架构模式——mvp,非常详细,很值得学习。

为什么要去学习MVP,看看下面的一张图就知道了。

1. 序言

  • 实际开发中根据业务选择合适的架构。
  • 这篇博客简单介绍MVC模式,详细介绍MVP模式。
  • 看完这篇博客,不会写MVP,直接留言,我跪搓板!

2. MVC模式简介

  • M:Model:模型层:负责业务逻辑。
  • V:View:视图层:负责界面呈现
  • C:Controller:控制层:负责Model与View交互。
  • 简单说:MVC就是通过Controller来操作Model层的数据,并且返回给View层展示。

3. Android中的MVC模式缺点

  • Android并不是一个标准的MVC模式中的Controller,它的首要职责是加载应用的布局和初始化用户界面,接受并处理来自用户的操作请求,进而做出响应。随着界面及其逻辑的复杂度不断提升,Activity类的职责不断增加,以致变得庞大臃肿。
  • 由于Android的Controller通常在Activity、Fragment中,所以Model和View层耦合严重,不易开发和维护。

4. MVP模式简介

  • M:Model:负责获取和存储数据。
  • V:View:负责用户事件和视图部分的展示。
  • P:Presenter:作为View和Model之间沟通的桥梁。
  • 简单说:MVP就是通过Presenter从Model层检索数据后返回给View层。

5. Android中的MVP模式的优点

  • Presenter完全将Model和View进行了分离,主要逻辑在Presenter里实现。

6. MVP示例

6.1 添加依赖

compile 'cn.finalteam:okhttpfinal:2.0.7'

6.2 初始化okhttpfinal

public class App extends Application {
    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        super.onCreate();
        OkHttpFinalConfiguration.Builder builder = new OkHttpFinalConfiguration.Builder();
        OkHttpFinal.getInstance().init(builder.build());
    }
}

6.3 实现Model ① 创建实体类TitleData:

public class TitleData {

    /**
     * reason : 成功的返回
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20:18","category":"头条","author_name":"国际在线","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415201853732.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://08.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201853_1a2a3e54aea6c551f4d2e617a7574fd4_2_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://08.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201853_1a2a3e54aea6c551f4d2e617a7574fd4_1_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s03":"http://08.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201853_1a2a3e54aea6c551f4d2e617a7574fd4_3_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"6e405694c1e5d4ee4c9bdcf36d7891c6","title":"澳大利亚将中国妖魔化企图没有成功,反而让更多的国家理解中国!","date":"2018-04-15 20:13","category":"头条","author_name":"环球新闻","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415201358006.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://04.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201358_7174cd1b5a28c3bf37cf12719f935f61_3_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://04.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201358_7174cd1b5a28c3bf37cf12719f935f61_2_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"1932da294e569b5177b5013593a2b7d7","title":"第十二届河南投洽会邀海内外客商近两万人 突出国际性","date":"2018-04-15 20:12","category":"头条","author_name":"中国新闻网","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415201258277.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://07.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201258_25ee36c89b0b8c28d55f373e3c4f0783_1_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"1b1b2d050ed24ce7804fb19db5fec1bc","title":"第八届北京电影节开幕 红毯仪式星光熠熠","date":"2018-04-15 20:12","category":"头条","author_name":"中国新闻网","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415201257389.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://00.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201257_5e767f1c848445b38a961be448891242_8_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://00.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201257_5e767f1c848445b38a961be448891242_5_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s03":"http://00.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415201257_5e767f1c848445b38a961be448891242_6_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"86d60fe3db18a77f00d3f58f5fe6aa52","title":"u201c幼升小u201d公民同招,受u201c新中考u201d引导,今年校园开放日家长日趋理性","date":"2018-04-15 20:08","category":"头条","author_name":"解放网","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415200807125.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200807_c093b191b7c42d8b61123396c93cc872_3_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200807_c093b191b7c42d8b61123396c93cc872_1_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s03":"http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200807_c093b191b7c42d8b61123396c93cc872_2_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"f570d395e734c3a81a9c02cbbad5b36d","title":"安倍晋三隐忍多年,未能摆脱u201c绿帽子u201d头衔,如今终于决定离婚!","date":"2018-04-15 20:05","category":"头条","author_name":"战魂不息","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415200557521.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://09.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415_de26aaf0831973b0e0341f26b4aff3d4_cover_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://09.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415_c9d9ea6863bb00bce5ae429236991b58_cover_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s03":"http://09.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415_54a1150e82fcd52b6e950ad3c8353794_cover_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"99e3626c3f70b4b99c094be3613364cb","title":"金正恩在平壤会见中国艺术团团长宋涛","date":"2018-04-15 20:04","category":"头条","author_name":"央视网","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415200405028.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://01.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200405_b738aea415821905d6a3165d74490caa_1_mwpm_03200403.jpg"},{"uniquekey":"65e0297026cbefe2a2a38d720393372d","title":"【中国梦·大国工匠篇】精益求精勤钻研,匠人精神塑楷模","date":"2018-04-15 20:03","category":"头条","author_name":"中国日报网","url":"http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415200354400.html","thumbnail_pic_s":"http://09.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200354_d686eba1caaf4314de166fcfe22e1898_2_mwpm_03200403.jpg","thumbnail_pic_s02":"http://09.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415200354_d686eba1caaf4314de166fcfe22e1898_1_mwpm_03200403.jpg"}]
         */

        private String stat;
        private List<DataBean> data;

        public String getStat() {
            return stat;
        }

        public void setStat(String stat) {
            this.stat = stat;
        }

        public List<DataBean> getData() {
            return data;
        }

        public void setData(List<DataBean> data) {
            this.data = data;
        }

        public static class DataBean {
            /**
             * uniquekey : 68388dafd210bd9e6e733f28f35d36d9
             * title : 不用去健身房的徒手健身14式!随时让你身体泵感飙升!
             * date : 2018-04-15 22:27
             * category : 头条
             * author_name : 极限肌汤
             * url : http://mini.eastday.com/mobile/180415222744706.html
             * thumbnail_pic_s : http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415222744_1f0504d02a116dbd1c1b2e25c4038b5a_9_mwpm_03200403.jpg
             * thumbnail_pic_s02 : http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415222744_1f0504d02a116dbd1c1b2e25c4038b5a_15_mwpm_03200403.jpg
             * thumbnail_pic_s03 : http://06.imgmini.eastday.com/mobile/20180415/20180415222744_1f0504d02a116dbd1c1b2e25c4038b5a_14_mwpm_03200403.jpg
             */

            private String uniquekey;
            private String title;
            private String date;
            private String category;
            private String author_name;
            private String url;
            private String thumbnail_pic_s;
            private String thumbnail_pic_s02;
            private String thumbnail_pic_s03;

            public String getUniquekey() {
                return uniquekey;
            }

            public void setUniquekey(String uniquekey) {
                this.uniquekey = uniquekey;
            }

            public String getTitle() {
                return title;
            }

            public void setTitle(String title) {
                this.title = title;
            }

            public String getDate() {
                return date;
            }

            public void setDate(String date) {
                this.date = date;
            }

            public String getCategory() {
                return category;
            }

            public void setCategory(String category) {
                this.category = category;
            }

            public String getAuthor_name() {
                return author_name;
            }

            public void setAuthor_name(String author_name) {
                this.author_name = author_name;
            }

            public String getUrl() {
                return url;
            }

            public void setUrl(String url) {
                this.url = url;
            }

            public String getThumbnail_pic_s() {
                return thumbnail_pic_s;
            }

            public void setThumbnail_pic_s(String thumbnail_pic_s) {
                this.thumbnail_pic_s = thumbnail_pic_s;
            }

            public String getThumbnail_pic_s02() {
                return thumbnail_pic_s02;
            }

            public void setThumbnail_pic_s02(String thumbnail_pic_s02) {
                this.thumbnail_pic_s02 = thumbnail_pic_s02;
            }

            public String getThumbnail_pic_s03() {
                return thumbnail_pic_s03;
            }

            public void setThumbnail_pic_s03(String thumbnail_pic_s03) {
                this.thumbnail_pic_s03 = thumbnail_pic_s03;
            }
        }
    }
}

② 定义网络监听回调接口

public interface LoadTasksCallBack<T> {

    void onStart();

    void onFinish();

    void onSuccess(T t);

    void onFailed();

}

③ 定义获取网络数据的接口类

public interface NetTask<T> {
    void execute(T data,LoadTasksCallBack callBack);
}

④ 编写NetTask的实现类以获取数据

public class IpInfoTask implements NetTask<String> {

    private IpInfoTask() {
    }

    public static IpInfoTask getInstance() {
        return SingletonHolder.sInstance;
    }

    private static class SingletonHolder {
        private static final IpInfoTask sInstance = new IpInfoTask();
    }

    @Override
    public void execute(final String url, final LoadTasksCallBack callBack) {

        HttpRequest.get(url, new BaseHttpRequestCallback<TitleData>() {
            @Override
            public void onStart() {
                super.onStart();
                callBack.onStart();
            }

            @Override
            protected void onSuccess(TitleData ipInfo) {
                super.onSuccess(ipInfo);
                callBack.onSuccess(ipInfo);
            }

            @Override
            public void onFinish() {
                super.onFinish();
                callBack.onFinish();
            }

            @Override
            public void onFailure(int errorCode, String msg) {
                super.onFailure(errorCode, msg);
                callBack.onFailed();
            }
        });
    }
}

说明:IpInfoTask是一个单例类,在execute方法中通过okhttpfinal获取数据,同时在okhttpfinal的回调函数中调用自己定义的回调函数loadTasksCallBack。

6.4 实现Presenter ① 定义契约接口IpInfoContract

public interface IpInfoContract {
    interface Presenter {
        void getIpInfo(String url);
    }

    interface View extends BaseView<Presenter> {
        void setIpInfo(TitleData ipData);

        void showLoading();

        void hideLoading();

        void showError();

        boolean isActivie();
    }
}

说明:

  1. 契约接口主要用来存放相同业务的Presenter和View的接口,便于查找和维护。
  2. 在此看到Presenter接口定义了获取数据的方法,而View定义了与界面交互的方法。其中,isActive方法用于判断Fragment是否添加到了Activity中。
  3. 另外:View接口继承自BaseView接口,BaseView接口的目的就是给View绑定Presenter:
public interface BaseView<T> {
    void setPresenter(T presenter);
}

② 实现Presenter接口:

public class IpInfoPresenter implements IpInfoContract.Presenter, LoadTasksCallBack<IpInfo> {

    private NetTask mNetTask;
    private IpInfoContract.View mAddTaskView;

    public IpInfoPresenter(NetTask netTask, IpInfoContract.View addTaskView) {
        mNetTask = netTask;
        mAddTaskView = addTaskView;
    }

    @Override
    public void onStart() {
        if (mAddTaskView.isActivie()) {
            mAddTaskView.showLoading();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onFinish() {
        if (mAddTaskView.isActivie()) {
            mAddTaskView.hideLoading();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onSuccess(IpInfo ipInfo) {
        if (mAddTaskView.isActivie()) {
            mAddTaskView.setIpInfo(ipInfo);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void onFailed() {
        if (mAddTaskView.isActivie()) {
            mAddTaskView.showError();
            mAddTaskView.hideLoading();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void getIpInfo(String ip) {
        mNetTask.execute(ip, this);
    }
}

说明:

  1. IpInfoPresenter中含有NetTask和InfoContract.View的实例,并且实现了LoadTasksCallBack接口。
  2. mNetTask.execute(ip, this)这句话用于获取数据并且回调给InInfoPresenter,回调给InInfoPresenter后通过mAddTaskView和页面进行交互,更改界面。

实质:

  1. Presenter实际就是一个中间人,它通过NetTask(Model层)获取和保存数据,然后通过View更新界面。
  2. 期间通过定义接口使得View和Model没有任何交互。

6.5 实现View

public class IpInfoFragment extends Fragment implements IpInfoContract.View {

    private Button mBt_ipinfo;
    private TextView mNews;
    private ProgressDialog mProgressDialog;

    private IpInfoContract.Presenter mPresenter;

    private static final String URL = "http://v.juhe.cn/toutiao/index?type=top&key=cc651913ae067cf88c7d9ec710fe5b3a";

    public static IpInfoFragment newInstance() {
        return new IpInfoFragment();
    }

    @Nullable
    @Override
    public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, @Nullable ViewGroup container, @Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        View root = inflater.inflate(R.layout.fragment_ipinfo, container, false);
        mNews = (TextView) root.findViewById(R.id.tv_news);
        mBt_ipinfo = (Button) root.findViewById(R.id.bt_ipinfo);
        return root;
    }

    @Override
    public void onActivityCreated(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);
        mProgressDialog = new ProgressDialog(getActivity());
        mProgressDialog.setTitle("获取数据中");
        mBt_ipinfo.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() {
            @Override
            public void onClick(View v) {
                mPresenter.getIpInfo(URL);
            }
        });
    }

    @Override
    public void setPresenter(IpInfoContract.Presenter presenter) {
        mPresenter = presenter;
    }

    @Override
    public void setIpInfo(TitleData ipInfo) {
        if (ipInfo != null && ipInfo.getResult().getData() != null) {
            List<TitleData.ResultBean.DataBean> data = ipInfo.getResult().getData();
            mNews.setText(data.get(0).getTitle());
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void showLoading() {
        mProgressDialog.show();
    }

    @Override
    public void hideLoading() {
        if (mProgressDialog.isShowing()) {
            mProgressDialog.dismiss();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void showError() {
        Toast.makeText(getActivity(), "网络出错", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show();
    }

    @Override
    public boolean isActivie() {
        return isAdded();
    }
}

说明:

  1. setPresenter方法注入IpInfoPresenter。
  2. getIpInfo方法获取ip地址的信息:也就是调用presenter。
  3. fragment实现了view接口,用来接收IpinfoPresenter的回调并更新界面。

6.6 Activity中的setPresenter

  1. 把IpInfoTask(Model)和Fragment(View)注入到Presenter.
  2. 通过setPresenter将Presenter注入Fragment
public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private IpInfoPresenter ipInfoPresenter;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        //  把Fragment添加到Activity中
        IpInfoFragment ipInfoFragment = (IpInfoFragment) getSupportFragmentManager().findFragmentById(R.id.contentFrame);
        if (ipInfoFragment == null) {
            ipInfoFragment = IpInfoFragment.newInstance();
            ActivityUtils.addFragmentToActivity(getSupportFragmentManager(), ipInfoFragment, R.id.contentFrame);
        }
       //  把Model和View注入Presenter,并且把Presenter注入Fragment
        IpInfoTask ipInfoTask = IpInfoTask.getInstance();
        ipInfoPresenter = new IpInfoPresenter(ipInfoTask, ipInfoFragment);
        ipInfoFragment.setPresenter(ipInfoPresenter);
    }
}
public class ActivityUtils {
    public static void addFragmentToActivity(FragmentManager fragmentManager, Fragment fragment, int frameId) {
        FragmentTransaction fragmentTransaction = fragmentManager.beginTransaction();
        fragmentTransaction.add(frameId, fragment);
        fragmentTransaction.commit();
    }
}

6.6. 总结

  1. View和Model之间没有联系。
  2. View和Presenter通过接口进行交互。
  3. 在Activity中Presenter和View相互注入。

7. 下载地址(欢迎Star)

https://github.com/OnlyYouMyLove/MVP

8. 后续

如果大家喜欢这篇文章,欢迎点赞;如果想看更多前端移动端后端Java或Python方面的技术,欢迎关注!

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